Marco conceptual de una cultura sistémica en las redes virtuales de fabricación global

José Ramón Vilana Arto, Carlos Rodríguez Monroy

Resumen


En este trabajo se analizan los factores más relevantes de la cultura organizacional que aparecen en las Redes Virtuales de Fabricación Global (RVFG). Estas organizaciones están formadas por empresas muy dinámicas que fabrican todo tipo de productos o servicios, las cuales establecen entre sí relaciones de tipo horizontal y vertical, pudiendo incluso ser competidores, donde no es necesario mantener internamente grandes recursos fabriles sino gestionar y compartir eficientemente los recursos de la red. El estudio de la cultura organizacional a nivel de red incluye aspectos como la similitud de las prácticas culturales entre sus actores, la integración social, la transferencia de conocimiento tácito o la importancia de la confianza en la red. Son, en definitiva, los aspectos blandos o "soft factors" de las RVFGs y constituyen uno de los aspectos fundamentales en el funcionamiento eficiente de las mismas. Mediante el modelo teórico propuesto se analizarán todos los factores culturales relevantes en las colaboraciones interempresariales, así como la posible existencia de una cultura organizacional a nivel de red. La presencia, bajo una perspectiva sistémica, de unos valores y prácticas culturales homogéneas en las que se puedan identificar los actores de la red permitiría fortalecer la pertenencia al grupo o establecer una red social que subyaga a la propia RVFG y que facilite e incremente las interacciones entre sus miembros. La factibilidad de este planteamiento facilitaría la formación de nuevas RVFGs al poder establecer, ex ante, un modelo prescriptivo cultural a nivel de red. Finalmente, para validar el modelo propuesto, se aplicará la metodología del caso a un ejemplo de la industria aeronáutica que ha constituido una de las relaciones con más éxito dentro de las RVFGs, la colaboración entre GE y SNECMA para la fabricación del motor CFM 56.

This paper analyzes the most relevant factors of organizational culture that appear in the global manufacturing virtual network (GMVN). These organizations are formed by very dynamic companies that manufacture all types of products or services, which establish horizontal and vertical relations among themselves, in some cases between direct competitors, where it is not necessary to maintain large internal manufacturing resources but manage and share these resources efficiently in the network. The study of organizational culture at the network level includes aspects such as cultural similarity among its actors, social embeddedness, tacit knowledge transfer or the importance of trust in the network. They are ultimately the soft factors of GMVNs and represent one of the key aspects for the efficient operation thereof. The proposed theoretical model will permit to analyze all relevant cultural factors in inter-company collaborations, as well as the possible existence of an organizational culture at the network level. The presence, under a systemic perspective, of homogeneous cultural values and practices in which network actors can be identified would strengthen the group membership or would establish a social network that underlies the own GMVN and facilitates interactions among its members. The feasibility of this approach would facilitate the formation of new GMVNs by establishing, ex ante, a cultural prescriptive model at the network level. Finally, to validate the proposed model, the case methodology will be applied to an example within the aeronautical industry that has been one of the most successful relationships within GMVNs, the collaboration between GE and SNECMA for the CFM 56 engine manufacturing.


Palabras clave


Redes virtuales de fabricación global; Cultura interempresarial; Industria aeronáutica; Global manufacturing virtual networks; Inter-company culture; Aeronautic industry

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18002/pec.v0i9.670

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