La percepción del entorno organizativo y la creatividad : análisis de las dimensiones del clima laboral que determinan el comportamiento creativo del empleado en la empresa

María Felisa Muñoz Doyague

Resumen


La creatividad se está convirtiendo en un fenómeno de especial interés para las organizaciones. Por ello, existe un interés creciente por comprender cuáles son los factores responsables del rendimiento creativo en los entornos laborales. A pesar de ello, todavía existen lagunas importantes en la literatura sobre como influye la existencia en la empresa de un clima que apoye a la innovación. Con el fin de aportar nueva evidencia empírica al respecto, el objetivo del presente trabajo consiste en analizar cómo influye en la creatividad de los empleados, la percepción que éstos tengan de que el clima existente en la organización apoya a la innovación. Para ello, utilizando el concepto de clima psicológico y adoptando una definición de creatividad en términos de producto, se realizó un estudio entre los empleados de una empresa del sector de la automoción. Tras someter la medida del clima a un análisis factorial por el método de componentes principales, que reveló la existencia de cinco dimensiones significativas, se realizó un análisis de regresión para ver la influencia de cada factor en la creatividad de los trabajadores. Los resultados logrados revelan la importancia que tiene esta variable en la explicación del rendimiento creativo. De esta forma se ha puesto de manifiesto que la empresa debe crear un entorno laboral favorable a la creatividad, mediante los mecanismos adecuados a tal efecto. Así, la provisión de recursos para la generación y el desarrollo de ideas, la existencia de una comunicación fluida en el seno de la empresa, la participación de todos los trabajadores en la toma de decisiones o la consideración del esfuerzo realizado parecen ser de especial relevancia para conseguir este propósito.

Creativity is becoming a particularly important phenomenon for organizations. There is consequently increasing interest in understanding the factors responsible for creative performance in labor environments. In spite of this, important gaps still exist in the literature about the influence of the work environment on creativity. With the aim of offering new empirical evidence on this question, the object of the current work is to analyze how employees' perception about the organizational climate influences their creativity. With this aim, using the concept of psychological climate and adopting a definition of creativity in terms of the product, the work studies the employees of a firm from the automotive sector. We carried out a principal components factor analysis, with the aim being to obtain the dimensions or factors summarizing the main policies or procedures followed by the firm in favor of creativity. We obtained five significant dimensions and then, made a regression analysis in order to determine how each of the related to creativity. The findings reveal the importante of this variable for explaining creative performance. Thus, providing resources for the generation and development of ideas, the existente of a fluid communication within the firm, the participation of all the workers in the decisionmaking, and the recognition of workers' efforts all seem to be particularly relevant for achieving this purpose.

Palabras clave


Clima psicológico; Creatividad; Psychological climate; Creativity

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18002/pec.v0i2008.792

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