The training of Olympic wrestling coaches: study of the sources of knowledge and essential training contents
Keywords:Coach training, curriculum, wrestling, Olympic wrestling, combat sports
AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze the representation of wrestling coaches regarding the sources of knowledge and the training contents to be adopted during the training process of young wrestlers’ coaches. The study was based on Grossman’s (1990) model of professional knowledge for teaching and followed a qualitative, multiple case study methodology. Following a semi-structured script, six Olympic wrestling experts were interviewed in-depth, trying to identify the sources of knowledge that the coaches used for their training and what didactic-methodological contents they considered essential to play their role as coach. The analysis revealed that the coaches’ sources of professional knowledge were diverse, including academic training and professional experience as the main sources of access to professional knowledge. The coaches also pointed out that their first sources of knowledge were their experiences as competitive athletes. Finally, this study concludes that expert coaches must acquire a profound knowledge of the competition environment, seeking to optimize their influence on athletes, which should extend not only to the sport practice of the youngster – as an athlete – but also at the level of the athlete as a person.
Bardin, L. (2004). Análise de Conteúdo (L. Antero, Trans. 3ª Edição ed.). Lisboa: Edições 70.
Berliner, D. (1986). In pursuit of the expert pedagogue. Educational Research, 15(7), 5-13.
Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S. (1994). Investigação Qualitativa em Educação. Porto: Porto Editora.
Chen, D. (2001). Trends in augmented feed-back research and tips for practitioner. JOPERD, 72, 32-36.
Clark, C. M., & Peterson, P. L. (1986). Teacher's Thought Processes. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching (3rd ed., pp. 255-294). New York: Macmillan.
Correia, M. C. E. E. (2005). Concepções Didácticas e Metodológicas do Ensino do Surf. Mestrado, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa - Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Lisboa.
Costa, F. C. d., Carvalho, L., Onofre, M., Diniz, J. A., & Pestana, C. (1996). Formação de Professores em Educação Física: Concepções, Investigação, Prática. Lisboa: Edições FMH.
Coté, J., Salmela, J., Trudel, P., Baria, A., & Russel, S. (1995). The Coaching Model: a grounded assessment on expert gymnastic coaches knowledge. Journal of Sport and Exercice Psychology, 17(1), 1-17.
Gardener. (1989). Knowledge Base for the Beginning Teacher. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Gilbert, W., & Trudel, P. (2001). Learning to Coach Trough Experience: reflection in model youth sport coaches. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 21, 16-34.
Gould, D., Krane, V., Giannini, J., & Hodge, K. (1990). Educational Needs of Elite U.S. National Team, Pan American, and Olympic Coaches. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 9, 332-344.
Gould, D., Pierce, S., Cowburn, I., & Driska, A. (2017). How Coaching Philosophy Drives Coaching Action: A Case Study of Renowned Wrestling Coach J Robinson. International Sport Coaching Journal, 4(1), 13-37. doi: 10.1123/iscj.2016-0052
Graber, K. (1991). Studentship in Preservice Teacher Education: a qualitative study of undergraduate students in physical education. Research Quartely for Exerciceand Sport, 62(1), 41-51.
Graça, A. (1997). O Conhecimento Pedagógico do Conteúdo no Ensino do Basquetebol. Doutoramento, UN-FCDEF, Porto.
Graça, A. (2002). Concepções Didácticas sobre o Ensino do Jogo. In S. J. I. Godoy & M. M. García (Eds.), Novos Horizontes para o Treino do Basquetebol (pp. 21 - 36). Lisboa: FMH - Edições.
Graham, G., French, K., & Woods, A. (1993). Observing and interpreting teaching-learning process: Novice PETE Students, experienced PETE students, and expert teacher educators. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 13, 46-61.
Grau, M. (2000). El perfil del maestro especialista de Educacion Física. Apunts de Educación Física y Deportes, (61), 48-51.
Griffey, D., & Housner, L. (1991). Differences between experienced and inexperienced teachers planning decisions, interactions, student engagement and instruccional climate. Researche Quartly for Exercise and Sport, 62(2), 196-204.
Grossman, P. (1990). The Making of a Teacher: Teacher Knowledge and Teacher Education. New York: Teacher`s College Press.
Hoque, F. (2014). Everything Connects: How to Transform and Lead in the Age of Creativity, Innovation, and Sustainability. New York: McGraw Hill Education.
Januário, C. (1996). Do Pensamento do Professor à Sala de Aula. Coimbra: LivrariaAlmedina.
Jimenez-Landazuri, A., Gomez-Alonso, M. T., Izquierdo, E., & Gutierrez-Garcia, C. (2016). Research into the history of martial arts and combat sports in Spain: the Noticiarios y documentales (No-Do – News newsreels (1943–1981). IDO Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 16(4), 11-20. doi: 10.14589/ido.16.4.3
Jones, R. & Wallace, M. (2005) Another bad day at the training ground: coping with ambiguity in the coaching context. Sport, Educationand Society, 10(1), 119-134.
Lee, M., Whitehead, J., & Balchin, N. (2000). The measurement of values in youth sport: development of the youth sport values questionnaire. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 22, 307-326.
Lima, T. (1989). Educação Física - Temas e Reflexões. Lisboa: Livros Horizonte.
Lyle, J. (1992). Systematic Coaching Behaviour: Investigation into the Coaching Process and the Implications of the Findings for Coach Education. In T. Williams, L. Almond & A. Sparks (Eds.), Sport Physical Activity - moving towrds excellence (463-469). London: FN Spon.
Macedo, J. C. (2002). O Conhecimento do Treinador e Concepções de Ensino do Voleibol de Treinadores dos Escalões de Formação.Mestrado, Universidade do Porto - Faculdade de Ciências do Desporto e de Educação Física, Porto.
Mallett, C., & Coulter, J. T. (2016). The Anatomy of a Successful Olympic Coach: Actor, Agent, and Author. International Sport Coaching Journal, 3, 113-127. doi: 10.1123/iscj.2015-0069
Martins, P. (2008). O conhecimento pedagógico do conteúdo no ensino da Luta. Mestrado, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana - UTL, Lisboa. Retrieved from www.repository.utl.pt/handle/10400.5/286
Martins, P. (2010). Luta Olímpica - O conhecimento pedagógico. Lisboa: FMH - Edições.
Martins, P., Rosado, A., Ferreira, V., & Biscaia, R. (2015). Examining the Validity of the Personal-social Responsibility Questionnaire among Athletes. Motriz. Journal of Physical Education. UNESP, 21(3), 321-328. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1980-65742015000300014
Martins, P., Rosado, A., Ferreira, V., & Biscaia, R. (2017). Personal and Social Responsibility among Athletes: the Role of Self-Determination, Achievement Goals and Engagement. Journal of Human Kinetics, 57, 39-50. doi: 10.1515/hukin-2017-0045
Mesquita, I. (1997). Pedagogia do Treino: A Formação em Jogos Desportivos Colectivos. Lisboa: Livros Horizonte, Lda.
Mesquita, I. (1998). A instrução e a estruturação das tarefas motoras no treino do voleibol - estudo experimental no escalão de iniciados feminino. Doutoramento, Universidade do Porto, Porto.
Pedro, S., & Martins, P. (2017). Suporte de autonomia, empenhamento e percepção subjetiva de esforço em lutadores. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte, 12(2), 279-286.
Pultorak, E. (1993). Facilitating Reflexive Tought in Novice Teacher. Journal of Teacher Education, 44(4), 288-295.
Rink, J., French, K., & Tejeerdsma, B. (1991). The Influence of Content Development on Effectiveness of Instruction. Journal of Teaching Physical Education, 11, 139-149.
Rosa, B. A., Quaresma, A. M. M., & Arede, J. (2016). Are martial arts and combat sports a school for life? Relationships between sport attitudes and quality of ife (intermediate results). Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 11(2s), 106-107. doi: 10.18002/rama.v11i2s.4194
Rosado, A. (1997). Observação e Reacção à Prestação Motora. Lisboa: FMH Edições.
Rovegno, I. (1992). Learning a new curricular approach: mechanisms of knowledge acquisition in preservice teachers. Teacher and Teacher Education, 8, 253-264.
Salmela, J. (1995). Learning from the development of expert coaches. Coaching and Sport Science Journal, 2(2), 3-13.
Salmela, J. (1996). Great job coach. Getting the edge from proven winners. Ottawa. ON: Potentium.
Shön, D. (1983). The Reflexive Practitioner. New York: Basic Books.
Shön, D. (1987). Educating the Reflexive Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Shulman, L. (1986). Paradigms and Research Programs in Study of Teaching. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching (3 ed., pp. 3-36). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Siedentop, D., & Eldar, E. (1989). Expertise, experienced and effectiveness. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 8, 254-260.
Simão, J., & Rosado, A. (2004). A formação do treinador: Análise das representações dos treinadores em relação ao perfil profissional e à sua auto-percepção de competência. In V. Ferreira & P. Sarmento (Eds.), Formação Desportiva: Perspectivas de Estudo nos Contextos Escolar e Desportivo (pp. 293-310). Lisboa: FMH -Edições.
Stein, M., Baxter, J., & Leinhardt, G. (1990). Subject Matter Knowledge and Elementary Instruction: A Case from Functions and Graphing. American Education Research Journal, 27(4), 639-663.
Torres, J. (1987). Os fundamentos da táctica nas Lutas Amadoras. In G. d. F. d. FPLA (Ed.), Elementos de Apoio ao Treinador de Lutas Amadoras (pp. 65 - 77). Lisboa: FPLA.
Torres, J. M. D. M. (1997). O Abandono Desportivo (Dropout) Analisado numa Perspectiva Organizacional: Um Estudo Elaborado na Associação de Lutas Amadoras de Lisboa. Mestrado, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa - Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Lisboa.
Trudel, P., Rodrigue, F., & Gilbert, W. (2016). The Journey from Competent to Innovator: Using Appreciative Inquiry to Enhance High Performance Coaching. AI Practitioner, 18(2), 40-46. doi: 10.12781/978-1-907549-27-4-5
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 Paulo Martins
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The authors who publish in this journal must agree to the following terms:
- The authors grant on a nonexclusive basis the exploitation rights (reproduction, distribution, public communication and transformation) of the work accepted for publication to the University of León. The authors can establish, on their own, additional agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in the journal (for example, placing it in an institutional repository or publishing it in a book), always acknowledging the initial publication in this journal.
- This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Click to see basic information and the legal text of the license.
- The authors are allowed and encouraged to disseminate electronically pre-print or post-print versions of their work before publication, as this can give rise to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and increased citing of the works published.