The grip dispute (kumi-kata ) in judo: A scoping review
Keywords:Martial arts, combat sports, judo, notational analysis, performance, gripping, judoka
In judo combat, the grip (kumi-kata) helps to control and to dominate the opponent, and per the current rules is a prerequisite to executing a throwing technique. In this scoping review, articles and reviews published in scientific journals in English were searched in Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases from inception until December 2020. The studies were classified into technical-tactical or time-motion analyses, grip or grip attempts, grip locations on uke´s (athlete receiving the attack) judogi (judo uniform) or hands that performed the grips, and one or two hands holding. Articles evaluating the physical and physiological capacities of grip dispute were excluded. From 286 articles identified, 41 were included in the final selection. Two reviewers screened the records independently for eligibility. One reviewer extracted all data and the other reviewed the data for accuracy. The main results showed that: i) more experienced athletes hold the judogi for less time before attacking and focus their vision on the face and collar; ii) male athletes, especially heavy ones, hold longer in the judogi and use more defensive grips (collar and collar); iii) the most used grip was collar and sleeve; iv) the most used position was kenka-yotsu (opposite sides). The result of this scoping review may assist coaches and athletes to develop training strategies according to the athletes’ technical-tactical objectives, as well as future investigations that can be conducted related to grip dispute in judo.
Agostinho, M. F., & Franchini, E. (2020). Observational analysis of the variability of actions in judo: The key for success? Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 15(2), 69–77. https://doi.org/10.18002/rama.v15i2.6341
Agostinho, M. F., Junior, J. A. O., Stankovic, N., Escobar-Molina, R., & Franchini, E. (2018). Comparison of special judo fitness test and dynamic and isometric judo chin-up tests’ performance and classificatory tables’ development for cadet and junior athletes. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 14(2), 244–252. https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.1836020.010
Balcı, Ş., & Ceylan, B. (2020). Penalties in judo: The impact of shido on match durations and results. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2020.1775413
Barreto, L. B. M., Dal Bello, F., Araujo, R. A., Brito, C. J., Fernandes, J. R., & Miarka, B. (2019). Judo approach and handgrip analysis: Determining aspects of world circuit high performance. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, 413–419. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2019.s2061
Boguszewski, D., Adamczyk, J., Boguszewska, K., Siewierski, M., & Białoszewski, W. B. (2014). The attractiveness of judo contests as a sports entertainment. Archives of Budo Science of Martial Arts and Extreme Sports, 10, 31–44.
Brito, C. J., Aedo-Muñoz, E., & Miarka, B. (2020). Judo performance: kinanthropometric importance for technical tactical and biomechanics. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano, 22(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-0037.2020v22e76584
Brito, C. J., Miarka, B., De Durana, A. L. D., & Fukuda, D. H. (2017). Home advantage in judo: analysis by the combat phase, penalties and the type of attack. Journal of Human Kinetics, 57(1), 213–220. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0062
Brito, C. J., Moreira, D. G., Fernandes, J. R., Ferreira, A. P., Córdova, C., Silva, R. A. S. da, & Miarka, B. (2017). Technical-tactical comparisons between weight divisions in elite judo athletes. Revista Portuguesa de Ciências Do Desporto, 17(S4A), 49–67. https://doi.org/10.5628/rpcd.17.s4a.49
Calmet, M., Miarka, B., & Franchini, E. (2010). Modeling of grasps in judo contests. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 10(3), 229–240. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2010.11868518
Calmet, M., Pierantozzi, E., Sterkowicz, S., Challis, B., & Franchini, E. (2017). Rule change and Olympic judo scores, penalties and match duration. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 17(4), 458–465. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2017.1350489
Calmet, M., Trezel, N., & Ahmaidi, S. (2006). Survey of system of attacks by Judoka in regional and interregional matches. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 103(7), 835–840. https://doi.org/10.2466/PMS.103.7.835-840
Challis, D., Scruton, A., Cole, M., & Callan, M. (2015). A time-motion analysis of lightweight women’s judo in the 2010 World Championships. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 10(2–3), 479–486. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.10.2-3.479
Courel-Ibáñez, J., Franchini, E., Femia, P., Stankovic, N., & Escobar-Molina, R. (2014). Effects of kumi-kata grip laterality and throwing side on attack effectiveness and combat result in elite judo athletes. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 14(1), 138–147. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2014.11868709
Dal Bello, F., Aedo-Muñoz, E., Brito, C., & Miarka, B. (2019). Performance analysis and probabilities by gender in judo: Combat phases, techniques and biomechanical levers. Facta Universitatis, Series: Physical Education and Sport, 17, 135–148. https://doi.org/10.22190/FUPES190415015D
Díaz-de-Durana, A. L., Bello, F. dal, Brito, C. J., & Miarka, B. (2018). High level performance in world judo circuit: Notational analyzes of combat phase by weight categories. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 13(2proc), S329–S338. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2018.13.proc2.17
Dopico-Calvo, X., Iglesias-Soler, E., Morenilla, L., Giráldez, M. A., Santos, L., & Ardá, A. (2017). Laterality and performance in combat sports. Archives of Budo, 12, 167–177.
Dudeniene, L., Skarbalius, A., Pukenas, K., & Callan, M. (2017). Time-motion performance in semi-professional Lithuanian women’s Judo athletes. Archives of Budo, 13, 309–314.
Escobar-Molina, R., Courel-Ibáñez, J., Franchini, E., Femia, P., & Stankovic, N. J. (2014). The impact of penalties on subsequent attack effectiveness and combat outcome among high elite judo competitors. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 14(3), 946–954. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2014.11868770
Franchini, E., Artioli, G. G., & Brito, C. J. (2013). Judo combat: Time-motion analysis and physiology. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 13(3), 624–641. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2013.11868676
Franchini, E., Lira, F. S., Julio, U. F., Antunes, B. M., Agostinho, M. F., Shiroma, S. A., & Gonçalves Panissa, V. L. (2018). Cytokine, physiological, technical–tactical and time structure responses in simulated judo competition. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 18(4), 595–608. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2018.1501993
Franchini, E., Schwartz, J., & Takito, M. Y. (2018). Maximal isometric handgrip strength: Comparison between weight categories and classificatory table for adult judo athletes. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 14(6), 968–973. https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.1836396.198
Franchini, E., Takito, M., Alves, E., Shiroma, S., Julio, U., & Humberstone, C. (2019). Effects of Different Fatigue Levels on Physiological Responses and Pacing in Judo Matches. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33(3), 1. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003006
Franchini, E., Takito, M. Y., & Calme, M. (2013). European Judo Championships: Impact of the new rule changes on points and penalties. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 13(2), 474–479. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2013.11868663
Goodway, J. D., & Robinson, L. E. (2015). Developmental trajectories in early sport specialization: A case for early sampling from a physical growth and motor development perspective. Kinesiology Review, 4(3), 267–278. https://doi.org/10.1123/kr.2015-0028
Gutiérrez-Santiago, A., Gutiérrez, J. A., & Prieto-Lage, I. (2020). Temporary judo combat structure of women with visual impairment. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 20(4), 631–645. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2020.1774729
International Judo Federation. (2010). Sports and Organization Rules of the International Judo Federation. https://www.ijf.org/ijf/documents/22
International Judo Federation. (2013). Sports and Organization Rules of the International Judo Federation.
International Judo Federation. (2015). Sports and Organization Rules of the International Judo Federation. https://www.ijf.org/ijf/documents/22
International Judo Federation. (2017). Sports and Organization Rules of the International Judo Federation. https://www.ijf.org/ijf/documents/22
International Judo Federation. (2019). Sports and Organization Rules of the International Judo Federation. https://www.ijf.org/ijf/documents/6
Ito, K., Hirose, N., & Maekawa, N. (2019). Characteristics of re-gripping techniques preceding scored throws in international-level judo competition. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 25(1), 43–50. https://doi.org/10.18276/cej.2019.1-05
Ito, K., Hirose, N., Maekawa, N., Tamura, M., & Nakamura, M. (2015). Alterations in kumite techniques and the effects on score rates following the 2013 International Judo Federation rule revision. Archives of Budo, 11, 87–92.
Ito, K., Hirose, N., Nakamura, M., Maekawa, N., & Tamura, M. (2014). Judo kumi-te pattern and technique effectiveness shifts after the 2013 International Judo Federation rule revision. Archives of Budo, 10(1), 1–9.
Ito, K., Hirose, N., Nakamura, M., Maekawa, N., Tamura, M., & Hirotsu, N. (2013). The transformation of technical-tactical behaviours for hand techniques used in attacking below the belt after the 2010 International Judo Federation rule revision. Archives of Budo, 9(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.12659/aob.883732
Julio, U. F., Gonçalves Panissa, V. L., Agostinho, M. F., Cury, R. L., Esteves, J. V., & Franchini, E. (2018). Time-course of time-motion, physiological, perceived exertion and neuromuscular responses during simulated judo matches. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 18(4), 582–594. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2018.1507479
Kajmovic, H., & Radjo, I. (2014). A comparison of gripping configuration and throwing techniques efficiency index in judo between male and female judoka during Bosnia and Herzegovina senior state championships. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 14(2), 620–634. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2014.11868747
Kajmovic, H., Rado, I., Mekic, A., Crnogorac, B., & Colakhodzic, E. (2014). Difference in gripping configurations during the execution of throwing techniques between male and female cadets at the European Judo Championship. Archives of Budo, 10(1), 141–146.
Kłys, A., Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K., Adam, M., & Casals, C. (2020). Performance analysis considering the technical-tactical variables in female judo athletes at different sport skill levels: Optimization of predictors. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(4), 1775–1782. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2020.04241
Kons, R. L., Franchini, E., & Detanico, D. (2018). Relationship between physical fitness, attacks and effectiveness in short- and long-duration judo matches. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 18(6), 1024–1036. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2018.1545198
Marcon, G., Franchini, E., Jardim, J. R., & Barros Neto, T. L. (2010). Structural analysis of action and time in sports: Judo. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, 6(4). https://doi.org/10.2202/1559-0410.1226
Margnes, E., & Paillard, T. (2011). Teaching balance for judo practitioners. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 11(1), 42–46.
Miarka, B., Branco, B. H. M., Del Vecchio, F. B., Camey, S., & Franchini, E. (2015). Development and validation of a time-motion judo combat model based on the Markovian processes. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 15(1), 315–331. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2015.11868795
Miarka, B., Brito, C. J., Amtmann, J., Córdova, C., Bello, F. D., & Camey, S. (2018). Suggestions for judo training with pacing strategy and decision making by judo championship phases. Journal of Human Kinetics, 64(1), 219–232. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2017-0196
Miarka, B., Cury, R., Julianetti, R., Battazza, R., Julio, U. F., Calmet, M., & Franchini, E. (2014). A comparison of time-motion and technical-tactical variables between age groups of female judo matches. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(16), 1529–1538. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.903335
Miarka, B., Del Vecchio, F. B., Julianetti, R., Cury, R., Camey, S., & Franchini, E. (2016). Time-motion and tactical analysis of Olympic judo fighters. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 16(1), 133–142. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2016.11868876
Miarka, B., Fukuda, D. H., Del Vecchio, F. B., & Franchini, E. (2016). Discriminant analysis of technical-tactical actions in high-level judo athletes. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 16(1), 30–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2016.11868868
Miarka, B., Fukuda, D. H., Heinisch, H. D., Battazza, R., Del Vecchio, F. B., Camey, S., & Franchini, E. (2016). Time-motion analysis and decision making in female judo athletes during victory or defeat at Olympic and non-Olympic events: Are combat actions really unpredictable? International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 16(2), 442–463. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2016.11868900
Miarka, B., Hayashida, C. R., Julio, U. F., Calmet, M., & Franchini, E. (2011). Objectivity of FRAMI-Software for judo match analysis. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 11(2), 254–266. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2011.11868546
Miarka, B., Panissa, V. L. G., Julio, U. F., Del Vecchio, F. B., Calmet, M., & Franchini, E. (2012). A comparison of time-motion performance between age groups in judo matches. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(9), 899–905. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.679675
Miarka, B., Pérez, D. I. V., Aedo-Muñoz, E., Barreto, L. B. M., Fernandes, J. R., & Brito, C. J. (2020). Practical application of time-motion analysis of judo female cadets’ combats between weight divisions. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 20(4), 701–708. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2020.1780870
Miarka, B., Pérez, D. I. V., Aedo-Muñoz, E., Costa, L. O. da F., & Brito, C. J. (2020). Technical-tactical behaviors analysis of male and female judo cadets’ combats. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01389
Miarka, B., Sterkowicz-Przybycien, K., & Fukuda, D. H. (2017). Evaluation of sex-specific movement patterns in judo using probabilistic neural networks. Motor Control, 21(4), 390–412. https://doi.org/10.1123/mc.2016-0007
Ouzzani, M., Hammady, H., Fedorowicz, Z., & Elmagarmid, A. (2016). Rayyan—a web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Systematic Reviews, 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-016-0384-4
Page, M. J., McKenzie, J. E., Bossuyt, P. M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T. C., Mulrow, C. D., Shamseer, L., Tetzlaff, J. M., Akl, E. A., Brennan, S. E., Chou, R., Glanville, J., Grimshaw, J. M., Hróbjartsson, A., Lalu, M. M., Li, T., Loder, E. W., Mayo-Wilson, E., McDonald, S., … Moher, D. (2021). The PRISMA 2020 statement: An updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. In The BMJ (Vol. 372). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n71
Piras, A., Pierantozzi, E., & Squatrito, S. (2014). Visual search strategy in judo fighters during the execution of the first grip. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 9(1), 185–197. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-95126.96.36.199
Sayers, A. (2007). Tips and tricks in performing a systematic review. The British Journal of General Practice : The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 57(545). https://doi.org/10.3399/096016407782604938
Soriano, D., Irurtia, A., Tarragó, R., Tayot, P., Milà-Villaroel, R., & Iglesias, X. (2019). Time-motion analysis during elite judo combats (defragmenting the gripping time). Archives of Budo, 15, 33–43.
Soto, D. A. S., Aedo-Muñoz, E., Brito, C. J., Camey, S., & Miarka, B. (2020). Making decisions and motor actions with technical biomechanical classifications in male judo weight categories. Journal of Human Kinetics, 72(1), 241–252. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0110
Soto, D. A. S., Aedo-Muñoz, E., Brito, C. J., & Miarka, B. (2020). Comparisons of motor actions and biomechanical assessments of judo techniques between female weight categories. Journal of Human Kinetics, 75(1), 247–255. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2020-0053
Stanković, N., Cuk, S., Milosevic, N., & Stamenkovic, S. (2015). The course of the judo fight at the 2011 World Championship. Facta Universitatis, Series: Physical Education and Sport, 13(1), 107–113.
Stanković, N., Milošević, N., & Živković, M. (2019). The impact of the 2013 rule changes on gripping configuration in high-level judo athletes. Annales Kinesiologiae, 10(1), 3–13. https://doi.org/10.35469/ak.2019.195
Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K., Miarka, B., & Fukuda, D. H. (2017). Sex and weight category differences in time-motion analysis of elite judo athletes: Implications for assessment and training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(3), 817–825. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001597
Sterkowicz, S., Lech, G., & Blecharz, J. (2010). Effects of laterality on the technical/tactical behavior in view of the results of judo fights. Archives of Budo, 6(4), 173–177.
Tamura, M., Hirose, N., Nakamura, M., Saitoh, H., Yamauchi, N., Tanaka, C., Suzuki, K., & Suganami, M. (2012). Changes in judo kumite tactics according to revisions of the IJF competition rules. Research Journal of Budo, 45(2), 143–149. https://doi.org/10.11214/budo.45.143
Tricco, A. C., Lillie, E., Zarin, W., O’Brien, K. K., Colquhoun, H., Levac, D., Moher, D., Peters, M. D. J., Horsley, T., Weeks, L., Hempel, S., Akl, E. A., Chang, C., McGowan, J., Stewart, L., Hartling, L., Aldcroft, A., Wilson, M. G., Garritty, C., … Straus, S. E. (2018). PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and explanation. In Annals of Internal Medicine (Vol. 169, Issue 7, pp. 467–473). https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-0850
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Daniel Brandão Kashiwagura; Emerson Franchini
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The authors who publish in this journal must agree to the following terms:
- The authors grant on a nonexclusive basis the exploitation rights (reproduction, distribution, public communication and transformation) of the work accepted for publication to the University of León. The authors can establish, on their own, additional agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in the journal (for example, placing it in an institutional repository or publishing it in a book), always acknowledging the initial publication in this journal.
- This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Click to see basic information and the legal text of the license.
- The authors are allowed and encouraged to disseminate electronically pre-print or post-print versions of their work before publication, as this can give rise to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and increased citing of the works published.