Kito-ryu jujutsu and the desolation of Kodokan judo’s Koshiki-no-kata -Remembering Inoue Shoji (1927-2018)
Keywords:Budo, Japan, Jigoro Kano, judo, kata, Kito-ryu, Kodokan, koryu, martial arts
Inoue Shoji (1927-2018) was born in Tokushimaprefecture, Japan. As a youngster he took up judo. Later, he studied Kito-ryu jujutsu for some time with Odaka Shigeru. During his professional career as a prison guard he followed up on an offer to become a judo therapist. In a dojo in the Yamashina-ku ward in Kyoto he taught both judo and a limited catalogue of Kito-ryu that included exercises that were adopted into Kodokan judo under the name koshiki-no-kata [The Antique Forms]. With Kodokan judo continuing to deteriorate into an ordinary sport and losing its core values and purpose, Inoue increasingly appreciated the traditional martial arts values preserved in Kito-ryu jujutsu. His enthusiasm was reflected in beginning to give public demonstrations at various events in Japan and becoming a representative of Kito-ryu in the Nihon Kobudo Kyokai. Inoue’s supreme moment of glory likely was his public demonstration in 2013 at the occasion of the Fifth International Judo Federation (IJF) World Kata Judo Championships held in Kyoto. It was this performance that introduced him to the international judo community and brought him certain fame. For most foreign judoka this was their first contact with Kito-ryu. Irrespective of the quality of Inoue’s display, his approach offered a counterweight against the Kodokan’s historic reinvention and the IJF sports kata caricature. Several video clips publicly available on YouTube remain as a lasting memory of his art. Inoue Shoji held the rank of Kodokan 8th dan, and peacefully died in Kyoto on October 30th, 2018.
Bukkyō Daigaku Tsūshin Kyōiku-bu [Department of Distance Learning of Buddhist University]. (2010). O-sanpo Kyōtogaku: Edo-jidai-hen. Kobudō no seishin ni semaru ~ Kitō-ryū jūjutsu o tsutaete [A stroll through studying Kyōto: Selections from the Edo Period. Finding the soul of traditional martial arts: Follow Kitō-ryū jūjutsu]. Butsu Dai Tsūshin [Buddhist University Press] Vol. 536, May 2010 [retrieved August 4th, 2010] [about 8 pages]. [in Japanese]. Retrieved from: http://www.bunet.jp/world/html/22_5/ 536_kyotogaku/index.html
Daigo, T. (2009). Koshiki-no-kata. Syllabus, Kōdōkan Summer Kata Course. Jérome Galbrun, translator (pp.1-12). Tōkyō: Kōdōkan Jūdō Institute; 29 July 2009.
Dax-Romswinkel, W. (2015). Koshiki-no-Kata: Wurzeln des Kodokan-Judo. Folge 1: Geschichte und theoretische Grundlagen [Koshiki-no-kata: Roots of Kōdōkan jūdō. Part 1: History and theoretical foundations]. Der Budoka (Verbandsmagazin Nordrhein-Westfälischer Judo-Verband e.V.), 43(1-2), 28-31. [in German]
De Crée, C. (1991). Het ontstaan en de wereldwijde ontwikkeling van het jūjutsu in een historisch perspectief [The origin and worldwide distribution of jūjutsu in a historic perspective]. Syllabus Trainer A Course (pp. 1-55). Brussels: BLOSO – Flemish Trainer School (VTS). [in Dutch]
De Crée, C. (1999) Jūdō en jūjutsu master class: De VVA en Koshiki-no-kata. [Jūdō and jūjutsu master class: The Flemish Combat Sports Association and Koshiki-no-kata]. Kiai (Bel.), 14(2), 17-18. [in Dutch].
De Crée, C (2018). Kitō-ryū jūjutsu’s Yoroi Kumi-uchi-no-kata [Forms of Wrestling in Armor] and its impact on the essence of Kōdōkan’s Koshiki-no-kata [Forms Antiques] and subsequent development of jūdō’s conceptual curriculum. Dissertation PhD in Oriental Languages & Cultures: Japanese Studies; Department of South & East Asian Languages and Cultures, Faculty of Arts and Philosophy, Ghent University, Ghent.
De Crée, C. (2016). Les kata en jūdō [The kata in jūdō]. Invited presentation. Fédération Française de Judo et Disciplines Associées (FFJDA) [French Jūdō Federation and Associated Disciplines], Institut National du Sport, de l'Expertise et de la Performance (INSEP) [French Olympic Teacher Training Institute and Center for Excellence in Sports], Paris, France, December 6th, 2016. Doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30857. 85604 [in French]. Retrieved from: http://www.canal-sport.fr/fr/kata-1/les-kata-en-judo
Higashi, K. (1992). Kanō Jigorō kenkyū no dōkō to kadai [Tendency and subject of studies concerned with Kanō Jigorō]. Tōkyō Gaikokugō Daigaku Ronshū, 4, 129-139.
Inoue, S. (1998). The invention of the martial arts Kano Jigoro and Kodokan Judo. In: Vlastos (Ed.), Mirror of Modernity: Invented traditions of modern Japan – Part Four: Sports (pp. 163-173). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Inoue, S. (2008). Kitō-ryū jūjutsu [The School of Rising and Falling]. Nihon Kobudō Kyōkai. 2008. [retrieved November 4th, 2018]. [in Japanese]. Retrieved from: http://www.nihonkobudokyoukai.org/martialarts/009/
Inoue, S. (2009). Kitō-ryū jūjutsu [The School of Rising and Falling]. Program Brochure Dai 32 kai Nihon kobudō enbu taikai – Dai 2 kan: Jūjutsu hen. Nihon Budō Kyōkai setsuritsu 30 shūnen kinen [Public Exhibition of Japanese Old Martial Arts – Volume 2: Compilation of Jūjutsu. 32nd Performance at the Occasion of the 30th Anniversary Commemoration of the founding of the Nihon Budō Kyōkai]; Tōkyō: Nippon Budōkan, February 21st, 2009. Tōkyō: Nihon Budō Kyōkai. [in Japanese]
Inoue, S. (2012). Kitō-ryū uen no ji. Tōkyō Shiba Atago jinja, Kōdōkan Jūdō Shiryō-shitsu o tazunete [Areas relevant for Kitō-ryū. A visit to Shiba Atago Shrine in Tōkyō, and the Kōdōkan jūdō Reference Room]. 10 October 2011. Nisei Hatsuratsu [Japanese Jūdō Therapy Alive] (Japan Judo Therapist Association); 6(7), 21-22. [in Japanese]
Inoue, S. & Okajima, J. (1999). Kitō-ryū jūjutsu kumi-uchi no kata [videoclip]. Demonstration of the Terada-ha Kitō-ryū by Inoue Shōji, 7th dan (tori) & Okajima Jun, 5th dan (uke), during the Itsukushima-jinja Nihon kobudō enbu taikai; Itsukushima-jinja, Miyajima, Hiroshima; [retrieved August 12th, 2009]. [in Japanese]. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3mJ_Hnns2Qw
Inoue, S. & Okajima, J. (2008). Kitō-ryū jūjutsu kumi-uchi no kata [DVD]. Demonstration of the Terada-ha Kitō-ryū by Inoue Shōji, 8th dan (tori) & Okajima Jun, 6th dan (uke), during 31st Nihon kobudō enbu tai-kai. Nihon Budō Kyōkai setsuritsu 30 shūnen kinen [30th Anniversary Commemoration of the founding of the Nihon Budō Kyōkai]; February 10th, 2008; Musashi Budōkan, Mimasa, Okayama-ken, Japan (Unpublished private recording). [in Japanese]
Inoue, S. & Okajima, J. (2009). Kitō-ryū jūjutsu kumi-uchi no kata [DVD]. Demonstration of the Terada-ha Kitō-ryū by Inoue Shōji, 8th dan (tori) & Okajima Jun, 6th dan (uke). On: Dai 32 kai Nihon kobudō enbu taikai – Dai 2 kan: Jūjutsu hen. Nihon Budō Kyōkai setsuritsu 30 shūnen kinen [Public Exhibition of Japanese Old Martial Arts – Volume 2: Compilation of Jūjutsu. 32nd Performance at the Occasion of the 30th Anniversary Commemoration of the founding of the Nihon Budō Kyōkai]; Tōkyō: Nippon Budōkan, February 21st, 2009. BCD-99. Tōkyō: BAB Shuppan Nippon Budōkan; 2009 [in Japanese]
Inoue, S. & Okajima, J. (2011). Kitō-ryū jūjutsu kumi-uchi no kata [videoclip]. Suzuki Yuji, editor. Demonstration of the Terada-ha Kitō-ryū by Inoue Shōji, 8th dan (tori) & Okajima, Jun 6th dan (uke), during the Shimogamo-jinja enbu; May 4th, 2011; Shimogamo-jinja, Kyōto; [retrieved November 5th, 2011]. [in Japanese]. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= Wml1vC4fgIE
Inoue, S. & Okajima, J. (2013). Kito ryu Kata Demo [videoclip]. Demonstration of the Terada-ha Kitō-ryū by Inoue Shōji, 8th dan (tori) & Okajima Jun, 6th dan (uke), during the Fifth International Judo Federation (IJF) World Kata Jūdō Championships, Kyōto Budō Center, Kyōto, Japan; October 20th, 2013 [retrieved October 21st, 2013]. [in Japanese]. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3mJ_ Hnns2Qw
Kanemitsu, Y. (1958) Okayama-ken jūdō shi [History of Okayama Prefecture jūdō] (pp. 33, 134-135, 159-160). Self-published, Sanyō Insatsu Kabushiki Kaisha [Sanyō Printing Stock Company]. [in Japanese]
Kanō, J. (1921). Ichiban shūgyōsha ni kata no renshū wo susumeru [General recommendations to the judo disciple for the study of kata]. Yūkō-no-Katsudō, 7(11), 1-6 [in Japanese]
Kanō, J. (1889). Jūdō ippan narabi ni sono kyōikujo no kachi [A look at jūdō and its educational value]; Lecture presented at the Dai Nippon Kyōikukai; May 1889. Dai Nippon Kyōikukai Zasshi, 87, 446-449. [in Japanese]
Kanō, J. (1927). Jūdōka to shi te Kanō Jigorō (12). Kōdōkan jūdō no kata ni tsuite: Ichi, kata no seitei riyū [Jigorō Kanō, the jūdōka – Part 12. About the kata of Kōdōkan jūdō: 1. Reasons for the creation of the kata]. Lecture by Kanō Jigorō, transcribed by Ochiai Torahei. Sakkō, 6(12), 86-92 (15-21). [in Japanese]
Kinebuchi Masamitsu-sensei Tsuitō-roku Kankōkai. (1994). Koshiki-no-kata kenkyū shiryō [Koshiki-no-kata research materials]. In: Kinebuchi Masamitsu-sensei Tsuitō-roku [Kinebuchi Masamitsu-sensei Memorial Record] (pp. 1-259), Musashino, Tōkyō: Kinebuchi Masamitsu-sensei Tsuitō-roku Kankōkai [Kinebuchi Masamitsu-sensei Memorial Record Publication Society]. [in Japanese].
Kōdōkan. (2007). Kōdōkan Kōdansha Meibo [Kōdōkan High-Dan Rank Name Register] (p. 17). Tōkyō: Kōdōkan. [in Japanese]
Mol, S. (2001). Classical fighting arts of Japan. A complete guide to koryū jūjutsu. Tōkyō: Kōdansha Int.
Niehaus, A. (2003). Leben und werk Kanô Jigorôs (1860-1938). Ein Forschungsbeitrag zur Leibeserziehung und zum sport in Japan. Sport, Kultur und Gesellschart – Band IV [Life and work of Kanō Jigorō (1860-1938). A research contribution to physical education and sport in Japan. Sport, Culture and Society – Volume 4] (pp. 274-278). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag. [in German]
Niehaus, A. (2018). Narrating history in the manga ‘Judo no rekishi Kano Jigoro no shogai (1987)’. Martial Arts Studies, 6, 52-61. doi: http://doi.org/10.18573/mas.58
Oimatsu, S. (1982). Kitō-ryū. In: Oimatsu Shin’ichi, Ueshiba Kisshōmaru (Eds.), Nihon budō taikei – Dai roku ka: Jūjutsu – Aikijutsu [Compendium of Japanese martial arts – vol. 6: Jūjutsu – Aikijutsu] (pp. 367-391). Tōkyō: Kabushiki Kisha Thōsha Suppan. [in Japanese]
Ōtani, T. (1992). Kitō-ryū jūjutsu ni tsuite. Kitō-ryū no kata kara koshiki-no-kata e [About Kitō-ryū jūjutsu. From Kitō-ryū-no-kata to koshiki-no-kata]. [Okayama Commercial College Essay Collection]), 28(3), 87-107. [in Japanese].
Ōtani, T., & Uchino Y. (1985). Kitō-ryū (Bitchū Noda-ha) no kata ni tsuite [About the kata of Kitō-ryū [Bitchū- & Noda-ha style]]. Budōgaku Kenkyū, 18(2), 77-78. [in Japanese]. doi: http://doi.org/10.11214/budo1968.18.2_77
Satō, S. (2013). The sportification of judo: global convergence and evolution. Journal of Global History, 8(2), 299-317. doi: http://doi.org/10.1017/S1740022813000235
Shirasaki, H. (1987). Tōsei kijinden [Hearsay today] (pp. 1-431). Tōkyō: Shinchōsa [Shinchōsha Publishing Co, Ltd.]. [in Japanese].
Tōdō, Y. (2007). Kitō-ryū jūjutsu no bunka teki keitai to shisō [Culture of form and thoughts of Kitō-ryū jūjutsu]. In: Jūdō no rekishi to bunka [History and culture of jūdō] (pp. 40-51). Fumaidō Shuppan Publ. Co., Tōkyō. [in Japanese]
Tōdō, Y. (1978). Kitō-ryū jūjutsu to Kōdōkan jūdō to no kankei [The relationship between Kitō-ryū jūjutsu and Kōdōkan jūdō]. Budōgaku Kenkyū [Research Journal of Budō], 11(2), 30-31. [in Japanese]
Watatani, K., & Yamada, T. (Eds.). (1978). Kitō-ryū (yawara, yoroi kumi’uchi, iai, bō, ken, tachi, jinkama) [Kitō-ryū: unarmed combat, unarmed combat in full armor, sword drawing, stick fighting, sword fighting, long-sword fighting, sickle]. In: Bugei ryūha daijiten [Large Dictionary of Martial Arts] (pp. 219-223). Shin Jinbutsu Ōrai Sha/Tōkyō Copy Shuppan-bu, Tōkyō. [in Japanese]
Yoshida, O.A. (n.d.(a)). Kitō-ryū keizu [Kitō-ryū genealogy]. Publisher, location and date unknown [in Japanese]
Yoshida O.A. (n.d.(b)). Kitō-ryū menjō [Kitō-ryū licences]. Publisher, location and date unknown [in Japanese]
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Carl De Crée
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The authors who publish in this journal must agree to the following terms:
- The authors grant on a nonexclusive basis the exploitation rights (reproduction, distribution, public communication and transformation) of the work accepted for publication to the University of León. The authors can establish, on their own, additional agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in the journal (for example, placing it in an institutional repository or publishing it in a book), always acknowledging the initial publication in this journal.
- This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Click to see basic information and the legal text of the license.
- The authors are allowed and encouraged to disseminate electronically pre-print or post-print versions of their work before publication, as this can give rise to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and increased citing of the works published.