Relationship between psychological resilience and stress coping strategies in karate athletes
Keywords:Martial arts, combat sports, karate, stress, resilience, coping strategies
The aim of this research was to examine the psychological resilience and stress coping strategies of Karate athletes according to some demographic variables and to determine the relationship between them. A sample of 104 (54 females and 50 males, mean age 19.85±4.10 years) Karate athletes who trained in different sport clubs in Turkey were recruited. The Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) (Smith et al., 2008) and the Stress Coping Scale (SCS) (Sahin & Durak, 1995) were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, t-test and correlation analyses were used for data analysis. Participants’ psychological resilience was at mid-level, while the SCS self-confident approach and seeking social support sub-dimensions were at high and low level respectively. The athletes’ psychological resilience and stress coping strategies differed significantly according to gender. There was a positive and low significant correlation between experience and psychological resilience, in contrast a to negative and low significant correlation found between experience and helpless approach SCS sub-dimension. Middle and positive correlation was observed between age and psychological resilience. Finally, there were positive and middle significant correlations between psychological resilience and self-confident approach and optimistic approach, and a negative and middle significant correlation between psychological resilience and helpless approach SCS sub-dimensions.
Akman, D. (2019). The relationship of mental toughness with imagery, self-talk, and coping strategies in adult athletes. Unpublished master thesis. Marmara University, İstanbul, Turkey.
Alıncak, F. & Abakay, U. (2015). A comparison of stress management levels of individuals playing team sports and doing individual sports. The Journal of Academic Social Science, 3(16), 333-345. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.16992/ASOS.781
Arsan, N. & Koruç, Z. (2009). Determining athletes’ strategies of coping with stress. Turkish Journal of Sport Medicine, 44, 131-138.
Arslan, Ş. (2016). Comparison of the styles of coping with stress among individual and team athletes. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(3), 4221-4228. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14687/jhs.v13i3.4033
Aydın, İ., Öncü, E., Akbulut, V. & Küçük Kılıç, S. (2019). Psychological resilience and leisure boredom perception in pre-service teacher. Atatürk University Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science, 21(1), 39-53.
Belem, I. C., Caruzzo, N. M., Nascimento Júnior, J. R. A., Vieira, J. L. L & Vieira, L, F. (2015). Impact of coping strategies on resilience of elite beach volleyball athletes. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano, 16(4), 447-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n4p447
Bingöl, E. & Bayansalduz, M. (2016). Evaluating the level of exercise dependence and psychological resilience of athletes from different branches. Anthropologist, 24(3), 827-835. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2016.11892079
Boghrabadi, S. G., Arabameri, E. & Sheikh, M. (2015). A comparative study on resiliency and stress coping strategies among individual and team elite athletes and non-athletes. International Journal of Review in Life Sciences, 5(3), 566-572.
Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59, 20–28. doi: https://doi.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.20
Bonanno, G. A., Brewin, C. R., Kaniasty, K. & La Greca, A. M. (2010). Weighing the costs of disaster: Consequences, risks, and resilience in individuals, families, and communities. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 11, 1–49. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1529100610387086
Büyüköztürk, S. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. [Manual of data analysis for social sciences]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi. (in Turkish).
Campen, C. & Roberts, D. C. (2001). Coping strategies of runners: perceived effectiveness and match to pre-competitive anxiety. Journal of Sport Behavior, 24, 144-161.
Çetin, E. (2019). Teachers psychological resistance and relationship between stress and coping styles. Unpublished master thesis, Marmara University, İstanbul, Turkey.
Codonhato, R., Vissoci, J. R. N., Junior, J. R. A. D. N., Mizoguchi, M. V. & Fiorese, L. (2018). Impact of resilience on stress and recovery in athletes. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 24(5), 352-356. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/1517-869220182405170328
Çutuk, S., Beyleroğlu, M., Hazar, M., Akkuş Çutuk, Z. & Bezci, Z. (2017). The investigation of the relationship between psychological resilience levels and anxiety levels of Judo athletes. Niğde University Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, 11(1), 109-117.
Doğan, T. (2015). Adaptation of the brief resilience scale into Turkish: A validity and reliability study. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 3(1), 93-102.
Dugdale, J. R., Eklund, R. C. & Gordon, S. (2002). Expected and unexpected stressors in major international competition: Appraisal, coping, and performance. The Sport Psychologist, 16(1), 20-33. doi: https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.16.1.20
Erim, V. & Küçük, H. (2015). A comparison of psychological resilience of female national boxes in different categories. Kastamonu Education Journal, 25(1), 147-154.
Fletcher, D. & Sarkar, M. (2012). A grounded theory of psychological resilience in Olympic champions. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 669–678. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.04.007
Fletcher, D. & Sarkar, M. (2013). Psychological resilience: A review and critique of definitions, concepts and theory. European Psychologist, 18, 12–23. doi: https://doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040/a000124
Folkman, S. & Lazarus, R. S. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21(3) 219-239. doi: https://doi.org/10.2307/2136617
Fountain, H. E. (2017). An investigation into the nature of psychogical resilience in junior athletes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Edinburgh Napier University, Scothland.
Galli, N. & Gonzalez, S. P. (2015). Psychological resilience in sport: A review of the literature and implications for research and practice. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(3), 243-257. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2014.946947
Galli, N. & Vealey, R. S. (2008). “Bouncing back” from adversity: Athletes’ experiences of resilience. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 316–335. doi: https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1123/tsp.22.3.316
García, C. R., Vallarino, V. T. & Montero, F. J. O. (2014). Resilience, optimism and burnout in competitive judokas in Uruguay. Revista iberoamericana de psicología del ejercicio y el deporte, 9(2), 19-31.
Garmezy, N. (1991). Resiliency and vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes associated with poverty. American Behavioral Scientist, 34(4), 416-430. doi: https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1177/0002764291034004003
Greco, G., Cataldi, S. & Fischetti, F. (2019). Karate as anti-bullying strategy by improvement resilience and self-efficacy in school-age youth. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19, 1863-1870. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2019.s5276
Greco, G., Fischetti, F., Cataldi, S. & Latino, F. (2019). Effects of Shotokan Karate on resilience to bullying in adolescents. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 14(4proc), 890-899. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc4.52
Güvendi, B., Türksoy, A., Güçlü, M. & Konter, E. (2018). Examination of the level courage and mental toughness of professional wrestlers. International Journal of Sports Exercise & Training Sciences, 4(2), 70-78. doi: https://doi.org/10.18826/useeabd.424017
Hammermeister, J. & Burton, D. (2004). Gender differences in coping with endurance sport stress: Are men from Mars and women from Venus? Journal of Sport Behavior, 27, 148-164.
Hassmen, P., Koivula, N. & Uutela, A. (2000). Physical exercise and psychological well-being: A population study in Finland. Preventive Medicine 30(1), 17-25. doi: https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1999.0597
Hosseini, S. A. & Besharat, M. A. (2010). Relation of resilience with sport achievement and mental health in a sample of athletes. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 633-638. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.156
Jacelon, C. S. (1997). The trait and process of resilience. Leading Global Nursing Research, 25(1), 123-129. doi: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1997.1997025123.x
Jin, L. & Wang, C. D. (2018). International students’ attachment and psychological well-being: The mediation role of mental toughness. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 31(1), 59-78. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/09515070.2016.1211510
Johnson, J. (2015). Participation in sports and the development of resilience in adolescents. Unpublished educational specialist thesis. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, United States.
Karademir, T. & Açak, M. (2019). Investigating the psychogical endurance levels of university athletes. Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University Journal of Social Sciences, 16(2), 803-816. doi: https://doi.org/10.33437/ksusbd.566577
Karaırmak, Ö. (2006). Psychological resilience, risk factors and protective factors. Turkish Psychological Counseiling and Guidance Journal, 3(26), 129-142.
Koçak, M., Atlı Özbaş, A. & Gürhan, N. (2017). Identification of psychological resilience and self-efficacy levels of physical education-sport students. Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science, 11(2), 129-135.
Lazarus, R. S. & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Litwic-Kaminska, K. (2013). Resiliency ans stress experience among judo and taekwondo ethletes. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 2(2), 4, 167-172. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/20815735.1090669
Luthans, F. (2002). The need and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 695-706. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.165
Martin-Krumm, C. P., Sarrazin, P. G., Petersonc, C. & Famose, J. (2003). Explanatory style and resilience after sports failure. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(7), 1685-95. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00390-2
Montero, I. & León, O. G. (2007). A guide for naming research studies in psychology. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7(3), 847-862.
Moran, P. B. & Eckenrode, J. (1992). Protec-tive personality characteristics among adolescent victims of maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 743–754. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134(92)90111-4
Mummery, W. K., Schofield, G. & Perry, C. (2004). Bouncing back: The Role of coping style, social support and self-concept in resilience of sport performance. Athletic Insight, 6(3), 1-18.
Ortega, F. Z., Santos, E. O. Z., Moral, P. V., Fernández, S. R., Sánchez, M. C. & Molina, J. J. M. (2017). Analysis of resilience, self-concept and motivation in Judo as gender. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 26, 71-82.
Özdamar, K. (2002). Paket programlarla istatistiksel veri analizi-1. [Statistical data analysis with package programs]. Eskişehir: Kaan Kitabevi. (in Turkish).
Özdemir, N. (2019). The investigation of elite athletes’ psychological resilience. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 7(10), 47-57. doi: https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v7i10.4323
Özdevecioğlu, M. & Yalçın, Y. (2010). The effect of sports satisfaction on stress and aggression levels in sportsman. Niğde University Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, 4(1), 63-76.
Radochonski, M., Cynarski, W. J., Perenc, L. & Siorek-Maslanka, L. (2011). Competitive anxiety and coping strategies in young martial arts and track and field athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics, 27, 180-189. doi: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-011-0014-0
Ramirez-Granizo, I. A., Sánchez-Zafra, M., Zurita-Ortega, F., Puertas-Molero, P., González-Valero, G. & Ubago-Jiménez, J. L. (2020). Multidimensional self-concept depending on levels of resilience and the motivational climate directed towards sport in schoolchildren. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 534-545. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020534
Rew, L., Taylor-Seehafer, M., Thomas, N. Y. & Yockey, R. D. (2001). Correlates of resilience in homeless adolescents. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33(1), 33-40. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2001.00033.x
Ruiz, R., de la Vega, R., Poveda, J. Rosado, A. & Serpa S. (2012). Psychometric analysis of the resilience scale in the sport of football. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 21(1), 143-151.
Ruiz-Barquín, R., del Campo Vecino, J. & de la Vega Marcos, R. (2015). Resilience in athletic coaches high performance. Revista iberoamericana de psicología del ejercicio y el deporte, 10(1), 69-76.
Ruiz-Barquín, R., García Remis, M. P. & Gutiérrez-García, C. (2018, October). Psychological profile of competitive combat sports athletes: Comparison between mixed martial arts and other combat sports. In W. J. Cynarski & G. Szajna (Eds.), 4th World Scientific Congress of Combat Sports and Martial Arts and 7th IMACSSS International Conference 2018, Rzeszów, Poland: Proceedings, (pp. 77-79).
Ruiz-Barquín, R., Plura Maldonado, A. & Gutiérrez-García, C. (2019). Psychological characteristics of developing excellence in mixed martial arts athletes. Revista de Artes Marciales Asiáticas, 14(2s), 37-39. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18002/rama.v14i2s.6005
Ruiz-Barquín, R., Robles, J. J., García, S. & Gutiérrez-García, C. (2018, October). Judo competitors’ resilience levels at the 2017 Inter-Army Spanish Championship. In W. J. Cynarski & G. Szajna (Eds.), 4th World Scientific Congress of Combat Sports and Martial Arts and 7th IMACSSS International Conference 2018, Rzeszów, Poland: Proceedings, (pp. 75-77).
Şahin, N. H. & Durak, A. (1995). Stress coping scale: Adaptation for university students. Turkish Journal of Pyschology, 10(34), 56-73.
Şahin, T. & Güçlü, M. (2018). The effect of psychological resilience on atlethes emotion regulation skills: Sample of Turkey’s major leauge of protected football players. Spormetre, 16(3), 204-216. doi: https://doi.org/10.1501/Sporm_0000000388
Sarkar, M. & Fletcher, D. (2014). Psychological resilience in sport performers: A review of stressors and protective factors. Journal of Sport Sciences, 32(15), 1419-1434. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.901551
Sarkar, M. (2017). Psychological resilience: Definitional advancement and research developments in elite sport. International Journal of Stress Prevention and Wellbeing, 1(3).
Scully, D., Kremer, J., Meade, M. M., Graham, R. & Dudgeon, K. (1998). Physical exercise and psychological well being: A critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(2), 111-120. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.32.2.111
Secades, X. G., Molinero, O., Salguero, A., Ruiz-Barquín, R., de la Vega, R. & Marquez, S. (2016). Relationship between resilience and coping strategies in competitive sport. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 122, 336–349. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0031512516631056
Sheard, M. (2013). Mental toughness: The mindset behind sporting achievement (2nd Ed.). East Sussex: Routledge.
Smith, B. W., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P. & Jennifer-Bernard, J., (2008). The brief resilience scale: Assessing the ability to bounce back. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15, 194-200. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10705500802222972
Solomon, G. B. (2015). Mental toughness among college athletes. Journal of Applied Sports Science, 5(3), 171-175.
Tazegül, Ü. (2015). Investigating the relationship between types of personalities and way of coping with stress of elite athlete. International Journal of Social Science, 40, 453-461. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.9761/JASSS3102
Terte, I. & Stephens, C. (2014). Psychological resilience of workers in high-risk occupations. Stress and Health, 30(5), 353–355. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2627
Tugade, M. M. & Frederickson, B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(2), 320-333. doi: https://doi.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.520
Turgut, E. (2016). Investigating of secondary education studying Kareteka of stress coping. Unpublished master thesis. Bartın University, Bartın, Turkey.
Üstün, Ü. D., Gümüşgül, O., Demirel M. & Göral, M. (2014) . Ways of coping with stress: A study on taekwondo trainers in Turkey. International Journal of Multidiciplinary Though, 4(4), 519-529.
Yarayan, Y. E., Yıldız, A. B. & Gülşen, D. B. A. (2018). Examination of mental toughness levels of individual and team sports players at elite level according to various variables. The Journal of International Social Research, 11(57), 992-999. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17719/jisr.2018.2509
Yeltepe, H. (2007). Spor ve egzersiz psikolojisi. [Sports and exercise psychology]. İstanbul: Epsilon Yayınevi. (in Turkish).
Yi, J. P., Smith, R. E. & Vitaliano, P. P. (2005). Stress-resilience, illness, and coping: A person-focused investigation of young women athletes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 28(3), 257-65. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-005-4662-1
Yoo, J. (2001). Coping profile of Korean competitive athletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 32, 290-303.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Sonnur Kucuk Kilic
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The authors who publish in this journal must agree to the following terms:
- The authors grant on a nonexclusive basis the exploitation rights (reproduction, distribution, public communication and transformation) of the work accepted for publication to the University of León. The authors can establish, on their own, additional agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in the journal (for example, placing it in an institutional repository or publishing it in a book), always acknowledging the initial publication in this journal.
- This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Click to see basic information and the legal text of the license.
- The authors are allowed and encouraged to disseminate electronically pre-print or post-print versions of their work before publication, as this can give rise to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and increased citing of the works published.